Monitoring and Controlling is one of the five PMI process groups.
The processes in this process group are
- monitor and control project work
- perform integrated change control
- validate scope
- control scope
- control schedule
- control costs
- control quality
- control communications
- control risks
- control procurements
- control stakeholder engagement
According to Harold Kerzner (Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling, 11th Edition, p 225), controlling involves a three step process of measuring, evaluating and correcting. Measuring supplies data that can be assessed against standards. Then when the results of the measurement miss the standard, this evaluation points to where adjustments need to be made.
For example, work performance information provides measures to be evaluated (using analytical techniques among other tools and techniques) resulting in work performance reports, which can identify potential corrections.